Starting Basics for running a bash script

First of all you need to open the terminal [Ctrl + Alt + T] OR Konsole [for kubuntu]

Type in “pwd” to get the present working directory.

Then use cd to change the directory location to the location of your script.


For example:


I have changed the directory to Desktop/test/ because my script lies inside test folder.

So, as now we are in the directory which contains our script file we need to edit it and write something inside it.

As the beginning program, we start with echo command.

Contents of my


Now to run this script, we first need to give execute permissions to our script, for that we need to type the following command in terminal:

Now in order to run it, type in terminal:

And you will get the output as:

which was the expected output as echo prints the things you write inside it.


More about echo:

Echo can be used in 3 ways:

However, both 3 of them the output will vary!

For example:

I set a variable named test=”Blogging”

Now for all the 3 types:


Output for the above statements:


As you can see while using single quotes we are unable to print the variable value.


1 more thing is to be kept in mind while using echo without any quotes that if we want to use special symbols we need to add an escaping character infront of it in order to get it printed without getting error.

For example:

will run without any problem when we use \ as escaping character.


Check out the next post to continue learning bash scripting.

Hope you have a good day! 🙂

Program for binary search tree in C

In binary search tree,

The first number that we insert is the root element and every other number that is entered in the binary search tree is compared with the root element.

If the new number is > the root element then it is put in the right sub-tree.

And if new number is < the root element then it is put in the left sub-tree.




To perform string concatination & string comparison using operator overloading

Write a C++ program that overloads the + operator and relational operators (suitable) to perform the following operations:

  1. Concatenation of two strings.

2. Comparison of two strings.



Program to check whether the entered string is a substring of the main string or not.

Write a program that takes two input strings S1 and S2 and finds if S2 is a substring of S1 or not. If S2 is a substring of S1, the program should print the index at S1 at which there is a match. If S2 is not a substring of S1, the program should print -1. If S2 appears in S1 multiple times, print the first index in S1 at which the match occurred.




Create a class Rational Number (fractions) with mentioned capabilities

To create a class Rational Number (fractions) with the following capabilities:

  1. a) Create a constructor that prevents a 0 denominator in a fraction, reduces or simplifies fractions that are not in reduced form and avoids negative denominators.
  2. b) Overload the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division operators for this class.

c) Overload the relational and equality operators for this class.





Program to perform deposit/withdraw and other functions of a bank.

This program will take the input from user and withdraw/deposit the amount as per the liking of the user.





Program to find the number repeating maximum using classes

This is a program to find the number out of the given list of numbers which repeats the maximum no. of times.

We have predefined the numbers using array.




Program to create a saving account using class.

This is a basic c++ program to crate a saving account using class.


INPUT – time, rate of interest & balance

OUTPUT – Balance after that time.


We have to take the balance, rate of interest and time [in months] as input from user and display the balance which user will have after that time interval.




Making a table using HTML Example 2

Another example on how to make a table in html.



Making a form using HTML Example 2

Another example on making a form using HTML.